8. To continue to foster both material progress and cultural and ideological progress, attaching equal importance to both.
The reform, the process of opening to the outside world and the modernization drive are stimulating the Chinese people to emancipate their minds, acquire a broader outlook, turn their attention to the future and to the world at large and exert every effort to advance material wellbeing. At the same time, these new undertakings call for greater cultural and ideological progress. Only when there is both material progress and cultural and ideological progress can there be socialism with Chinese characteristics. Progress in this second sphere must be closely linked to the central task of economic development, providing our development, reform and opening to the outside world with a powerful ideological driving force and with strong intellectual support.
The emphasis must be on progress. We should attach great importance to theoretical work, protect academic freedom, take care to integrate theory with practice, initiate creative research, develop philosophy and other social sciences and uphold and advance Marxism. We should train more young and middle-aged theoretical workers so as to raise their professional competence. We should adhere to the principles of serving the people and the cause of socialism and of letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend. We should push forward the reform of the system of managing cultural undertakings, improve our economic policies concerning them and promote a flourishing socialist culture. We should attach importance to the social impact of works of art and encourage the creation of works with healthy content and aesthetic value, especially ones in praise of reform, opening to the outside world and modernization. We should do better work in the fields of the press and publishing, radio and television, literature and art. We should use ideological and political work to arouse the enthusiasm of the masses for devoting themselves to socialist construction.
We should teach the people of all nationalities, especially young people, about the Party's basic line, about modern and contemporary history and about the present conditions of our country, fostering patriotism, community spirit and socialist ideology. Thus, they will come to prize national dignity, self-confidence and self-reliance. They will resist the corrosive influence of the decadent capitalist and feudal ideologies and cherish correct ideals, convictions and values.
In every trade and profession, we should cultivate ethical conduct, gradually developing norms of occupational ethics appropriate to each and resolutely overcoming unhealthy practices such as the abuse of power for personal gain. We should strengthen education in social ethics and make a point of commending model workers who embody the spirit of the age. Communities, villages, townships, enterprises and schools should all work for cultural progress. We should continue to have model communities and units established jointly by the army and the people and by the police and the people, so as to achieve cultural progress at the grassroots level in both town and country. Cultural progress requires material support. We should increase investment in this area through all channels and include cultural facilities in the overall programme of urban and rural construction.
The spread of social evils damages people, especially young people, both physically and mentally, impedes the modernization drive, reform and opening to the outside world, and mars the image of socialism. These evils are therefore detested by the people, and we should wage a determined and effective long-term campaign to wipe them out.
Party committees at all levels should review the experience they have gained since we began the reform and the opening to the outside world, so as to improve their leadership in the effort to achieve cultural and ideological progress. We should maintain and enrich the fine traditions of the Chinese nation, assimilate the best achievements of other peoples and create an advanced culture and ideology through the rich, active practice of building socialism. We should create a favourable environment for the reform, the opening up and the modernization drive and nurture one generation after another of citizens who have high ideals, moral integrity, a better education and a strong sense of discipline.
9. To continue improving people's living standards, strictly control population growth and strengthen environmental protection.
The purpose of accelerating the reform, the opening up and economic development is to meet the growing material and cultural demands of the people. As production expands and social wealth increases, the real incomes, the consumption levels and the living standards of both urban and rural people will rise markedly. Their food, clothing, transportation and especially their housing will greatly improve. Their cultural life will grow richer, physical culture will develop, public health services will improve and the general level of health will rise.
It will be a magnificent achievement when the people of our country - one-fifth of the world's population - can lead a relatively comfortable life. At the same time, it should be remembered that China started with a poor economic foundation and that in this pioneering stage of the modernization drive we need more funds for construction. We must therefore continue the fine tradition of building the country through hard work and frugality. We should encourage people to practise economy.
We should firmly carry out the basic state policies of controlling population growth and strengthening environmental protection. We must never let up in the work of family planning. We should make sure that the established goal of population control is attained, promote prenatal and postnatal care and improve the people's health. We should study the ageing of the population and take appropriate measures to deal with it. We should increase the people's awareness of the importance of the environment, so that they will help preserve land, mineral resources, forests, water and other natural resources, use them wisely and protect the ecology.