(6) Implement the strategies of developing the country by relying on science and education and of achieving sustainable development.
Science and technology being a primary productive force, their progress is a decisive factor in economic development. We must take full account of the great impact of the future development of science and technology, particularly high technology, on the overall national strength, social and economic structure and the life of the people and make the acceleration of their progress a vital task in economic and social development. In this way, we shall really get onto the path of developing our economy by relying on scientific and technological progress and improving the quality of laborers. In drawing up long- and medium-term science development programs, we should proceed from China's long-term development requirements, bear in mind the overall situation, highlight key areas and, trying to do certain things and refraining from doing other things, strengthen basic research and research in high technology and accelerate the pace of applying high technology to production. We should intensify the development and spread of applied technologies, promote the translation of scientific and technological achievements into practical productive forces, and concentrate on tackling major and key technological problems in economic and social development. We should import, with our priorities in mind and on a selective basis, advanced technologies from abroad with a view to enhancing our own abilities of independent creation. As a developing country, China should attach greater importance to the application of the latest technological achievements and bring about a leap in its technological development.
We should deepen the reform of the management systems of science and technology and education to promote their integration with the economy. We should give gull scope to the roles of the market and social demand in orienting and promoting scientific and technological progress and encourage and help enterprises to engage in research, development and technological upgrading so that they will undertake to engage in research and development and invest in them. Wherever conditions permit, scientific research institutes and institutions of higher learning should take the road of combining production, teaching and research by entering into association or cooperation with enterprises in various ways so as to solve the problems of segmentation and dispersal of strength in the realm of science, technology and education. Innovation, competition and cooperation should be encouraged. We shall implement the regime of protecting intellectual property rights. Competent people being the most important resource for scientific and technological progress and economic and social development, we should institute a whole set of incentive mechanisms favorable to the training and use of such people. We should actively bring in intellectual resources from overseas and encourage those studying abroad to return and work or render their service to the motherland in one way or another.
As a populous country, relatively short of natural resources, China must implement a sustainable development strategy in the modernization drive. We should stick to the basic state policies of family planning and environmental protection, correctly handling the relationship of economic development versus population, natural resources and the environment. While exploiting our natural resources and making economical use of them, we lay emphasis on the latter so as to raise the efficiency of their utilization. We should make an overall plan for the development and improvement of our land resources and rigorously enforce laws governing the management and protection of such resources as land, water, forests, minerals and seas. We shall institute a system of paid use of natural resources. We must strengthen the control of environmental pollution and improve the ecological environment by planting trees and grass, doing well in the conservation of water and soil, and preventing and controlling desertification. With regard to population, we should control its growth and improve its quality, and pay attention to the problem of an aging population.
(7) Strive to do better in opening to the outside world.
Opening to the outside world is a long-term basic state policy. Confronted with globalization trends in economic, scientific and technological development, we should take an even more active stance in the world by improving the pattern of opening up in all directions, at all levels and in a wide range, developing an open economy, enhancing our international competitiveness, optimizing our economic structure and improving the quality of our national economy.
Focusing on better results, we should expand external trade in commodities and services and optimize the import and export mix. We shall stick to the strategy of achieving success on the strength of quality and a multi-outlet market, and vigorously open up markets abroad. We shall further lower the general level of tariffs and encourage the import of advanced technologies and key equipment. We shall deepen the reform of the system of trade and economic relations with foreign countries, improving the proxy system and expanding the power of enterprises to handle their own foreign trade so as to create a policy environment for competition on an equal footing. We shall take an active part in regional economic cooperation and the global system of multilateral trade.
We shall use foreign capital actively, rationally and effectively. We shall open the service trade step by step. In accordance with the law, we shall protect the rights and interests of foreign-funded enterprises, grant them the same treatment as their Chinese counterparts and improve guidance to and regulation of these enterprises. We shall encourage Chinese investors to invest abroad in areas that can bring China's comparative advantages into play so as to make better use of both Chinese and foreign markets and resources. We shall improve and enforce laws and statutes governing China's trade and economic relations with foreign countries. We must correctly handle the relationship of opening up versus independence and self-reliance, and safeguard the economic security of the country.
We should better operate the special economic zones and the Pudong New Area in Shanghai, encouraging them to continue to march in the forefront by playing their demonstrative, diffusive and leading roles in making institutional creations, upgrading industries and opening wider to the outside world.