On this day 30 years ago, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) was convened. This meeting ushered in a historic period of reform and opening up. A meeting of great significance, it marked a turning point in the Party's history since the founding of New China in 1949. At that historic moment, Chinese people of all ethnic groups started a great new revolution under the leadership of the CPC.
As we gather here today to mark the 30th anniversary of the Third Plenary Session, we must fully recognize the great significance and achievements of reform and opening up, review the course we have traversed and sum up our experience over the past 30 years. We must stick to the spirit of that meeting, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and put into practice the Scientific Outlook on Development under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thinking of the "Three Represents." We shall make greater strides in reform and opening up as we march on the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
The Third Plenary Session was convened at an important historical juncture when the Party and our country were at a crossroads. After the overthrow of the Gang of Four, there was strong public demand that the mistakes of the Cultural Revolution be corrected, and the serious situation created by 10 years of chaos reversed. Our Party and nation would thus emerge from a difficult period. However, this understandable wish met with strong obstacles, and there was hesitation over the future work of the Party and the nation. At the same time, the world economy was developing rapidly. Science and technology were making progress every day. Within China, there was an urgent need for reconstruction. On the ideological front, a heated debate on the "criterion for truth" was going on throughout the country. Therefore, it was the internal and external situation that demands that the Party and the nation had to make political decisions and the strategic choice vital to the fate of the Party as well as the nation.
Led by Comrade Deng Xiaoping and supported by other veteran revolutionaries, the Third Plenary Session began correcting "Leftist" mistakes of all forms committed before and during the "cultural revolution," firmly repudiated the fallacy of the "two whatevers" (i.e. Whatever has been said and done by Mao Zedong is right and whatever has been stipulated by him must not be changed). The Session affirmed that the scientific system of Mao Zedong Thought must be correctly understood in its full context and that the debate on the "criterion for truth" was of great significance. It called on the people to free their thinking, be practical, innovative and realistic, and work together for the reconstruction of the country. The slogan "The class struggle is the key link," which we used to guide our work during the "cultural revolution," was thoroughly repudiated. A historic decision was adopted at the Session to make economic development the central task of the Party and the government and to adopt reform and opening up.
For the Chinese Communist Party, the Third Plenary Session marked a reawakening under changed circumstances and demonstrated the Party's determination to create a new contemporary socialism in line with the people's aspirations. The session reinvigorated the whole country. All-round efforts were made to correct the wrong policies; past problems were resolved one by one; a socialist democracy and legal system were being built; the system and institutions of the Party and government in governing the country were improved; and progress was made in all fields. Throughout our great motherland, people's minds were set free, the economy began to grow, democracy was advocated, and education, arts and culture, and science developed. The Party and the nation were again full of hope and vigor on the great march to socialist modernization.
Reform and opening up is the essential feature of the new era. The purpose of reform and opening up is to liberate and develop productive forces and modernize the country, which will enable the Chinese people to live better lives and rejuvenate our great Chinese nation. It is to improve and develop our socialist system, instill vitality into socialism and build Chinese-style socialism. It is to improve and strengthen the Party as it leads contemporary China in development and to preserve the advanced nature of the Party to ensure that the Party will always march at the forefront.
In the past 30 years, the second generation of Party leadership with Comrade Deng Xiaoping at its core, the third generation of Party leadership with Comrade Jiang Zemin at its core, and the Party leadership since the 16th National Congress have led the whole Party and the whole nation of all ethnicities in making great efforts to push forward reform and opening up, showing their spirit of hard work and strong determination. During this period, six national Party congresses and 45 plenary sessions of the central committees were held to resolve new problems and sum up new experiences given the changing situations. By pooling the wisdom of the whole Party and all ethnic groups, we managed to establish the basic theory, line, program and experience, draw up and adopt a series of policies and principles as well as specific plans to guide the reform and opening up and socialist modernization. Thus, the road to socialism with Chinese characteristics was clearly charted.
Today, the 1.3 billion Chinese people have caught up with the times. They are firmly on the path to prosperity. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is full of vigor and vitality. The Chinese nation, which has made important contributions to the progress of human civilization, is now standing firm in the East.
In the past 30 years, building on the achievements made since New China was born, we have made remarkable achievements in all our endeavors. Reform and opening up has been our driving force.
With institutional reform in various sectors, we were able to turn a highly concentrated planned economy into a vigorous socialist market economy. To set up and improve the socialist market economic system, we have installed a two-tier management system that is based on the household contracting system and features an integration of unified management with separate management. A basic economic system was established, with public ownership as the pillar and all forms of ownership developing together. A distribution system was installed mainly on the principle of distribution according to work, while allowing other modes of distribution. An economic management system has taken shape, enabling the market to play the basic role in resource allocation under the macro-regulation of the government. Along with deepening reform of the economic system, we have reformed political, cultural and social institutions, creating flourishing entities to suit China's actual circumstances.
By opening our door wider, we have turned a closed or semi-closed society into a completely open one. This is a historic change. We have persisted in the basic policy of opening up to the outside world in our economic development and stepped up the growth of an open economy. Special economic zones have been established, followed by the opening of the coastal areas, areas along big rivers, the border regions and the hinterland, and finally, accession to the WTO. From "introducing foreign capital and technology into China" to "going global," we were able to avail ourselves of both domestic and international markets and both Chinese and foreign resources. This has helped strengthen China's international competitiveness. During the period from 1978 to 2007, the total import and export of China increased from $20.6 to $2.17 trillion, ranking the third in the world and becoming the No.1 country in terms of foreign reserves. The paid-up overseas investment amounted to nearly $1 trillion. International cooperation speeded up China's economic development while contributing a lot to the world economy.
As we concentrated our efforts on economic development, our national capacity has improved significantly. Our GDP rose from 364.5 billion yuan in 1978 to 24.95 trillion yuan in 2007, the average annual growth rate being 9.8 percent, more than three times the world average during the same period. China's economy now ranks fourth in the world in terms of GDP. By relying on our own efforts, we have been able to provide adequate food to a population of 1.3 billion. Our main agricultural and industrial output now ranks first in the world. Major world-class scientific and technological innovations continue to emerge. The high and new technological industries are developing vigorously. Rapid progress has been made in the construction of infrastructure including water conservancy, energy, transportation and telecommunication. The ecological environment keeps improving. Both the city and the countryside have taken on a new look.
We have paid great attention to improving people's lives. On the whole, our people now live moderately prosperous lives. The past 30 years saw the fastest increase in the income of people both in the cities and the countryside. The people have benefited a great deal from the reform and opening up policy. The average annual disposable income of city and town residents rose from 343 yuan in 1978 to 13,786 yuan in 2007, an increase of 6.5 times. The average annual income of farmers rose from 134 yuan in 1978 to 4,140 yuan in 2007, an increase of 6.3 times. The poor population in rural areas went down from 250 million in 1978 to 14 million in 2007. The average per-capita living space for both city residents and farmers has multiplied. People are richer, have better food and clothes, live in larger homes and enjoy better transportation services. The economy of shortage that had plagued us for a long time before reform and opening up has been fundamentally changed.
Our people's right to run the country is better protected as we are promoting socialist democracy. Political reform is deepening. The system of people's congresses, the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, the system of regional autonomy for ethnic minorities and the system of grass-root self-governance have all continued to improve. A legal system with Chinese characteristics is taking shape. The rule of law is being effectively practiced. Major progress has been made in building a socialist legal system. Citizens' participation in politics is expanding. Human rights are being improved in all aspects. The Patriotic United Front is expanding. There is greater harmony among different political parties, ethnic groups, religions, social strata and between Chinese on the mainland and overseas.
We have paid great attention to developing an advanced socialist culture in order to meet growing public demand. We have made significant progress in constructing a socialist core value system, and achieved success in building Marxist ideological theory. We have instituted campaigns for advanced spiritual civilization and public morality, and boosted efforts to provide moral and ethical education for young people. The cultural sector has been developing vigorously and the cultural industry is experiencing unprecedented prosperity. China's soft power is growing and the Chinese people are becoming better educated. The cohesiveness of the Chinese nation is strengthening conspicuously.
We have paid great attention to developing public welfare, and succeeded in developing and consolidating social harmony and stability. Free and compulsory nine-year education in urban and rural areas has been realized. The general scale of higher education and total enrolment in middle and elementary schools rank first in the world, while the quality of educational institutions is steadily improving. The scale of employment is gradually expanding and the vigor of job creation in the whole society is conspicuously gaining strength. The building of a social security system is accelerating, thus a social security umbrella covering every urban and rural citizen is gradually taking shape. The public healthcare system and basic medical service system are being improved and a reformed cooperative healthcare system in rural areas has expanded to reach nearly every part of the country. Social management is gradually improving and thus social stability is well maintained.
While the absolute leadership of the Party over military forces remains unchanged, China's national defense force and military development have seen substantial progress. Modernization and standardization of the armed forces have comprehensively been progressing. The military strategy and policies set for the new era have been implemented step by step and the building a modern armed forces with Chinese characteristics is well under way. We have made the necessary cuts in the numbers of military personnel, while weaponry has been greatly improved. All military and armed police units have ceased from doing business operation to gain financial help. The relationship of the armed forces with the government and with the public is in good condition. Therefore, the capability of the People's Liberation Army to fulfill its historical task has been strengthened comprehensively, and it has been playing an important role in national defense, economic construction and rescue work in natural disasters.
The basic policy of "one country, two systems" has been implemented successfully, a significant step toward China's peaceful unification. Hong Kong and Macao returned to the motherland and principles such as "one country, two systems," "Hong Kong people governing Hong Kong," "Macao people governing Macao" and a high degree of autonomy have been carried out comprehensively. The Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions have maintained stability and prosperity. As for the cross-Straits relations between China's mainland and Taiwan, recent years have seen increasingly frequent exchanges in economy, culture and personnel. Exchanges between parties on both sides have been successfully launched. Direct air, shipping and postal links between China's mainland and Taiwan have been established in a historic breakthrough. Remarkable achievements have been made in the battle against the "Taiwan independence" movement. Prospects for the future of cross-Straits relations are bright.
We unswervingly pursue an independent foreign policy of peace. Significant achievements have been made in multi-directional diplomacy. We have upheld the diplomatic principle of maintaining world peace and promoting common development, thus developing an all-round relationship with the developed countries, enhancing cordial relationships with bordering countries and consolidating traditional friendships with developing countries. China has actively participated in multilateral diplomacy, while taking on corresponding international duties. China's international status is rising and its influence is increasing, thus giving China a more constructive role in international affairs.
We have upheld the principles of the Party managing the Party and imposing strict discipline, and achieved a noticeably improvement in standards of Party leadership and governance and in its ability to resist corruption and malpractice. The great engineering of party building has progressed in all dimensions. The campaign to strengthen the Party's governing capacity and to educate Party members in preserving their vanguard nature has been progressing smoothly. Conspicuous achievement has been made in the Party's theory study. Intra-Party democracy has been strengthened. The internal rules and regulations of the Party have been improved. Party organizations at various levels have been enhanced, featuring a vigorous legion of Party members. Because of its continuous devotion to improving the Party's ethical standards, rules and regulations and the fight against corruption, the governing capacity of the Party in leading the reform and opening-up movement and pursuing socialist modernization has greatly increased. The Party's leading role in building socialism with Chinese characteristics has been sustained and strengthened.
The Party and the Chinese people have experienced unprecedented challenges in the past 30 years, given the dramatically changing international situation and the tough domestic task of reform and opening. Nevertheless, we have survived the hard times by successfully coping with various emergencies threatening China's sovereignty and security, while overcoming a series of difficulties and dangers ranging from the political and economic to natural disasters. No matter whether we confronted political upheaval in Eastern Europe, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, or domestic political turmoil, no matter whether we faced outside attempts to Westernize, split or block China, no matter whether we faced natural disasters of snowstorms and earthquakes or the SARS epidemic, no matter whether we faced the Asian financial crisis or the current global financial crisis – the Party and the people have acted as one to confront the future. At every critical moment in history that determined the fate and future of the Chinese nation as well as the Party, the Party relied on support from the Chinese people of various ethnic groups, and has devoted itself to the great cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics by firmly sticking to the development strategy set at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee while removing obstacles now and then. By so doing, the Party has guaranteed that the correct road of reform and opening up and building a modernized socialist China never changed. Over the last year we coped impressively with the heavy snowfalls in the south and the major earthquake in Sichuan, successfully held the Olympics and Paralympics in Beijing, saw the successful completion of the Shenzhou 7 manned space mission, and have seen positive results from our measures to counteract the global financial crisis. These efforts and achievements vividly demonstrate the power of the Party and the Chinese government, which are developing in tandem with the reform and opening policy, the power of China's 1.3 billion population as it advances, the power of reform and opening and the power of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Duo to these unremitting efforts, we have fulfilled the goals of the first phase and second phase in our "three-step development strategy," and are striding forward to reach the third target now. The great achievements we made in the past 30 years have laid a solid foundation for our cause. Facts show clearly that the development strategy that the Party has taken with all of the Chinese people since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee and related theories based on that strategy are completely correct. The profound influence of the Session is evident in every part of our lives and it will continue to affect China's development in the future.
The great achievements of reform and opening up can be regarded as a result of efforts made by the Chinese people of various ethnic groups. Every Chinese person who experienced and contributed to the transformation of the past 30 years should feel proud of himself. Here, on behalf of the CPC Central Committee and State Council, I would like to salute the workers, peasants, intellectuals, civil servants, officers and soldiers of the People's Liberation Army and Armed Police, policemen, people affiliated with other parties and NGOs, and patriots from various walks of life, who have contributed their wisdom and works to the reform and opening-up movement and China's modernization drive. I convey our warm greetings to all the compatriots in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions, and those in Taiwan and overseas, who made great effort to the modernization of the motherland and the great cause of unification. I would also like to express our hearty thanks to people in foreign countries who have supported and paid close attention to China's modernization drive.
While celebrating our success in the past 30 years, we cherish the memory of Comrades Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping and other revolutionaries of that generation. Without the struggle of the Chinese people led by the first-generation CPC Central Committee with Mao Zedong at its core, which was bathed in blood, there would be no New China; without the reform and innovation of the Chinese people led by the second-generation CPC Central Committee with Deng Xiaoping at its core, there would be no new era of reform and opening up and no socialism with Chinese characteristics. At this very moment, we should pay great respect to the third-generation CPC Central Committee with comrade Jiang Zemin at its core. It was this leading group that carried on and developed the great cause of reform and opening up while holding high the Deng Xiaoping theory, thus advancing the cause successfully into the 21st century. It is a must for our Party and Chinese people of various ethnic groups to remember forever the historical contributions of the leading groups of the past three generations.
We attribute all the achievements and progress made over the past 30 years to the following fundamental reason: we have pioneered socialism with Chinese characteristics and established a theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Through the past 30 years of pioneering practice and painstaking exploration, we have gained invaluable experience, which has been expounded as "10 links" by the 17th National Congress of the CPC Central Committee as follows:
(1) We must link adhering to the basic tenets of Marxism with promoting sinicised Marxism, emancipate our minds, seek truth from facts, advance with the times and use the theoretical innovations we have gained from practice as the guiding theory for reform and opening.
The key to China's great achievement over the past 30 years lies in our efforts in adhering to the fundamental principles of Marxism, constantly adapting Marxism to contemporary China's reality and development, and establishing a system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics, which comprises the important strategic theories and thoughts of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the "Three Represents," and the Scientific Outlook on Development, giving enormous vitality to Marxism in contemporary China.
Marxism was the essential guiding thought for the founding and development of the CPC and the People's Republic, and upholding and consolidating this status of Marxism in China provides the basic guarantees for unity between the CPC and the people and ensuring our country always takes the correct course. Meanwhile, only when Marxism is closely integrated with the actual conditions of China, with the trend of the times, and is constantly enriched and developed through practice, can its role of guiding practice be brought into fuller play. The Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee redefined the Party's ideological line, namely, that we must proceed from actual situations, integrate theory with practice, seek truth from facts, and test and develop truth through practice. In the course of reform and opening up, we must combine emancipating our minds with seeking truth from facts, vigorously develop a realistic and pragmatic work style, constantly enrich the law of CPC's governance and the law of socialist construction, strengthen our understanding of the law of social development of mankind, conscientiously emancipate our ideological understanding from inappropriate conceptual and institutional shackles and from subjective and metaphysical handcuffs, and rectify our incorrect and dogmatic understanding of Marxism. We have successfully answered a series of major theoretical and practical problems with our theoretical innovations based on practice, thus providing to reform and opening up theoretical guidance that keeps up with the times, grasps the law of development and is creative in nature and broadens the realm of Marxism to a new horizon. The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics represents our latest achievement in adapting Marxism to China's conditions. It is the Party's invaluable political and intellectual asset, as well as the common ideological foundation for the concerted endeavor of Chinese people of all ethnic groups, and fully embodies the concept of scientific socialism that has taken a firm hold in contemporary China. We must persistently arm the whole Party with and educate the people on this theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, continuously enhance the Marxist theoretical level of all Party members, and let the theoretical system take deep root in the hearts of the people and play a greater guiding role.
(2) We must link adhering to the four Cardinal Principles with carrying on reform and opening up, consistently giving priority to economic development, and steering reform and opening up forward on the right course.
During the past 30 years, we have unswervingly upheld the basic line of the Party, adhering to the Four Cardinal Principles to make sure our reform and opening up is on the right track, while giving new contemporary implication to the Four Cardinal Principles through reform and opening up. We have combined our central task of economic development and the two basic points of sticking to the Four Cardinal Principles and reform and opening up with our great practice of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. As a result, our socialism with Chinese characteristics has gained a steady and firm footing in China, and has been filled with enormous vigor and vitality in the face of profound changes around the world and in China today.
Based on the scientific thesis that China is still in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come, the CPC established the basic line of the Party through this primary stage, namely, leading and uniting peoples of all ethnic groups, taking economic development as the central task, adhering to the two basic points of the Four Cardinal Principles and reform and opening up, and striving through self-reliance and persistent hard work to build China into a prosperous, democratic, civilized and harmonious modern socialist country. Taking economic development as our central task is vital to invigorating our nation and is the fundamental requirement for the robust growth and lasting stability of the Party and the nation. The Four Cardinal Principles are the very foundation for building our country and the political cornerstone for the survival and development of the Party and the nation. Reform and opening up is the path to a stronger China and the source of vitality for the Party and the nation in development and progress. We must continue to apply the line of "one central task and two basic points," which form an interdependent and inalienable whole, never deviate from it even for a single moment, or emphasize one at the expense of the other. We must thoroughly adhere to this line and implement it in its entirety. If we do not concentrate on the central task, we will lose the material base on which our socialist society develops and progresses in an all-round manner; if we do not uphold the Four Cardinal Principles and reform and opening up, we will lose the orientation and dynamics of our economic development. The crux of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is that we must base all our efforts on the most significant reality that China is still in the primary and underdeveloped stage of socialism, where the principal contradiction is between the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and the low level of social production. This has set the fundamental task for socialism: releasing and developing productive forces and continuously improving people's livelihoods. To solve all the problems China now faces, the key lies in our reliance on self-development.
Over the past 30 years, while unswervingly sticking to the strategic thinking of taking development as the fundamental principle and adhering to the Four Cardinal Principles and reform and opening up, we have consistently committed ourselves to the central task of economic development, continued to release and develop social productive forces, and constantly consolidated the material base of socialism. The Party's basic line is essential for building, developing and rejuvenating our country; it is a political guarantee for scientific development, the lifeblood of the Party and the nation, and the key to improving people's livelihoods. Therefore, we must unswervingly adhere to this basic line of the Party, have infinite faith in it and take firm action in carrying it out. We will steadfastly take the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and will neither take the old path of developing a closed country in a rigid and doctrinaire way, nor take the wrong course of building China into a capitalist state.
(3) We must link respecting people's initiatives with strengthening and improving the leadership of the Party, exercise governance for the people, closely rely on the people, make every endeavor for the well-being of the people, and exercise the core leadership of the Party through bringing people's role in creating history into full play.
Over the past 30 years, while upholding the Marxist scientific principle that people create history, we have stood in great earnest for the fundamental interest of the overwhelming majority of the people, drawn on their wisdom, and given the fullest play to their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity. Meanwhile, we have strengthened and improved the Party's leadership, winning the full trust and support of the people, and consistently exercised the core leadership, providing the basic political guarantee to mobilizing immense strength to carry out reform and opening up as well as the socialist modernization drive.
The Chinese people are the source of strength for the Party and form the foundation for our victory. Reform and opening up are integration of people's and Party's political strategy. This is therefore the cause of the millions of Chinese people themselves. We uphold the notion of serving the people wholeheartedly and fully relying on them to do our work, and carry forward the fine tradition of "from the masses, to the masses," turning the Party's correct proposals into people's voluntary action. We advocate the consistency between respecting the law of social development and respecting the principal status of the people in history, the consistency between striving for the lofty ideals of the Party and working for the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, and the consistency between accomplishing the Party's work in all aspects and bringing more benefits to the people. We base the formulation of all our guiding principles and policies on the support, approval, liking and consent of the people, and use three essential criteria as the basic judgment, namely, whether these principles and policies contribute to developing socialist productive forces, whether they contribute to enhancing the national capacity of socialist China, and whether they contribute to improving the livelihoods of the people. We must continue to seek the people's opinions of our policies, learning about what they need and asking them for advice. We must guide the people with the correct theories, lines, policies and guiding principles that we have advanced and implemented, while endeavoring to gain the driving forces from their creations through practice and from their requirements for development. We must respect the principal position of the people in the country's political life, give play to their initiatives, and implement the important policy of respect for work, knowledge, talent and creation. We must rely on the working class wholeheartedly, bringing into play the role of the working class, the peasantry and other workers as the primary force for promoting social productivity, and supporting people from other new ranks and classes to play their role in the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, so that people from all walks of life can dedicate themselves to the great cause of reform and opening up with enormous enthusiasm. We must uphold the fundamental purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, build the Party for public interest, exercise governance for the people, bring benefits to them through reform and development, and work hard to realize, safeguard and expand the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. We must always be of one mind with the people, share a common fate with them, and derive nourishment from their creation through practice in order to enrich and perfect the views and ideas of the Party. In this way, the CPC will forever stand in the forefront of the times in the historical course of the profoundly changing world, serve as the backbone for people of all ethnic groups in the historical course of withstanding risks and ordeals from home and abroad, and form the core of strong leadership in the historical course of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
(4) We must link persevering with the basic system of socialism with developing the market economy, so as to make full use of the superiority of socialism and the effectiveness of market forces in allocating resources and create a society full of vitality for reform and development.
In the past 30 years, while adhering to the basic system of socialism amid profound and extensive changes, we have developed the market economy in a creative way under socialist conditions, which ensure our economic activities conform to the law of value, consistently liberated and developed social productive forces, increased national capacity, and improved people's livelihoods, thus better fulfilling our central task of economic construction. Establishing and optimizing the socialist market economic system is a historic contribution of our Party to Marxism and socialism.
The cause that our Party is leading the people to engage in is socialism. It is essential to persevere in the Party's leadership, guarantee the position of the people as masters of the country, and persist in the economic system in which public ownership and distribution according to work are dominant. In the meantime, we must actively explore systems and mechanisms that can greatly liberate and develop social productive forces and give full play to the development enthusiasm of the whole society, in order to allow the vitality of labor, knowledge, technology, managerial expertise and capital to compete in functioning and all sources of social wealth to be fully tapped. Our Party's definition of the establishment of the socialist market economy as the target model of China's economic restructuring has correctly addressed a major issue concerning the overall picture of socialist modernization. We have been devoted to establishing and optimizing the socialist market economic system, giving better play to the basic role of market forces in allocating resources, and promoting the establishment of a modern system of property rights and a modern corporate management system. At the same time, we have attached great importance to enhancing and improving the state's macroeconomic regulation, overcoming the faults inherent in the market itself, and ensuring dynamic, efficient and sound economic operation. We have been unwavering in consolidating and developing public ownership, ensuring the dominant role of the public sector of the economy, actively implementing multiple forms for the effective realization of public ownership, and enhancing the dynamism, dominance and influence of the public sector of the economy. At the same time, we have unswervingly encouraged, supported and guided the development of the non-public sector, and created a new situation in which all economic sectors compete on an equal footing and reinforce each other. We have adhered to and improved the system whereby distribution according to work remains the predominant mode and coexists with various other modes, with efforts being made to encourage creation, promote development, guarantee social fairness and prevent polarization. We will always stick to the orientation of reform that is to develop the socialist market economy, continue to improve the socialist market economic system, and enhance and optimize macroeconomic regulation so as to give strong impetus to sound and rapid social and economic development.
(5) We must link pressing ahead with changes in the economic base with promoting reform of the superstructure, continuously pushing forward political restructuring and provide institutional and legal guarantees for reform, opening up and socialist modernization.
In the past 30 years, we have paid equal attention to both economic and political restructuring and expanded socialist political democracy. In the process of building a socialist country under the rule of law, we have ensured the position of the people as masters of the country and consistently enabled the socialist superstructure to fit in with the economic base, with the result that socialist democracy has demonstrated greater vitality in the country.
China is a socialist country under the people's democratic dictatorship, led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. People's democracy is the lifeblood of socialism. The position of the people as masters of the country is the essence and core of socialist political democracy. Without democracy, there would be no socialism or socialist modernization. Adapting to economic and social development and the growing enthusiasm of the people for participation in political affairs, we have consistently developed socialist political civilization, with the aim of ensuring the position of the people as masters of the country, enhancing the vitality of the Party and the state and arousing the initiative of the people. We have carried out democratic elections, policy-making, administration and oversight in accordance with the law, in order to guarantee the people's rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard and to oversee. We have persisted in scientific, democratic and law-based governance, ensured scientific and democratic decision-making, and mobilized and organized the people as extensively as possible to manage state and social affairs as well as economic and cultural programs in accordance with the law. We have persisted in scientific and democratic legislation to improve the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, built up awareness of the socialist rule of law, ensured that all citizens are equal before the law, and respected and safeguarded human rights. We have carried out government administration in accordance with the law, deepened the reform of the judiciary system, ensured that all work of the state is based on the law, and safeguarded social equity and justice and the consistency, sanctity and authority of the socialist legal system.
China's political reform is characterized by self-improvement and development of the socialist political system. We must adhere to the path of political development under socialism with Chinese characteristics, integrate the leadership of the Party, the position of the people as masters of the country and the rule of law, maintain the features and advantages of the socialist political system, and proceed from national conditions. We must borrow from the useful achievements in politics from different civilizations of mankind but will never slavishly imitate any Western models. We must unwaveringly develop socialist political civilization, deepen political reform, and uphold and improve the system of people's congresses, the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, the system of regional ethnic autonomy and the system of grass-root self-governance. We must expand the Patriotic United Front, optimize institutions, standards and procedures for socialist political democracy, better ensure the position of the people as masters of the country, and consolidate and develop the political situation characterized by democracy, solidarity, liveliness, stability and harmony.
(6) We must link the effort to develop social productive forces with the effort to improve the cultural and ethical quality of the whole nation, pursuing coordinated development of material and spiritual civilization, and promote the vigorous development and prosperity of culture more conscientiously and actively.
In the past 30 years, we have focused our efforts on not only the development of social productive forces but also the improvement of the cultural quality of the whole nation, attached equal importance to both material and spiritual civilization, and run the country by combining the rule of law with the rule of virtue. We have persevered in arming the people with scientific theories, guiding the people with correct public opinions, molding the people with noble minds and inspiring the people with superior works, redoubled our efforts to nurture citizens with lofty ideals, moral integrity, better education and a strong sense of discipline, consistently raised the ideological and ethical standards and scientific and educational levels of the whole nation, provided a powerful ideological driving force and strong intellectual support for reform, opening up and socialist modernization, and created sound public opinion.
Socialism with Chinese characteristics is an endeavor for development and progress in all areas, which features mutual supplementation and harmonious development of material and spiritual civilization. Neither material nor spiritual poverty is the definition of socialism. The intrinsic quality of the people is produced by, and impacts on, history. We will never sacrifice spiritual civilization for short-term economic development. We have incorporated socialist core values into all stages of national education and the entire process of cultural and ethical progress, persistently armed the whole Party with and educated the people in the latest achievements in adapting Marxism to Chinese conditions, rallied the people with our common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, inspired the people with patriotism-centered national spirit and with the spirit of the times centering on reform and innovation, guided social ethos with the basic sense of "eight honors and eight disgraces" and solidified the common ideological basis of the joint endeavor of the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups. We have actively explored effective ways of letting the system of socialist core values guide trends of thought and take the initiative in ideological work, respecting divergence and allowing diversity while effectively resisting the influence of erroneous and decadent ideas. We have energetically developed a national, scientific and popular socialist culture geared to the needs of modernization, of the world and of the future, while maintaining close contact with reality, life and the public. We have deepened cultural restructuring, encouraged cultural innovation, and stimulated the cultural creativity of the whole nation. We have enhanced culture as part of the soft power of our country, promoted vigorous development of cultural programs and the cultural industry, created a thriving cultural market, and better guaranteed the people's basic cultural rights and interests. We must keep to the orientation of advanced socialist culture, bring about a new surge in socialist cultural development, and create cultural works in the great practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics, so as to ensure the people share in the benefits of cultural development, enrich cultural life in Chinese society and inspire the enthusiasm of the people for progress.
(7) We must link enhanced efficiency with the promotion of social equity, in order that all the people can share in the fruits of reform and development--on the basis of economic development --and step up our efforts to build a harmonious society.
Over the past 30 years, we have attached great importance to invigorating society through enhancing efficiency and promoting economic development. We have given equal weight to promoting social harmony through realizing social equity based on economic development. While adhering to the people-first principle, we have focused on solving the specific problems of utmost and immediate concern to the people. We have concentrated our efforts on developing social services and improving our income distribution system. We have also ensured and improved people's livelihoods and pursued a path of common prosperity. All these are aimed at creating a situation in which all people do their best, find their proper places in society and live together in harmony so as to foster a favorable social environment for development.
Realizing social equity and justice is an inherent requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Properly handing the relationship between efficiency and equity is a major task of the program. Efficiency leads to enhanced vitality. Equity helps promote harmony. Only by integrating efficiency with equity can we better reflect the essence of socialism. We try to arouse the initiative of the whole of society in promoting development on the economic and other fronts and stimulate society's creativity and vitality of development to the greatest extent by deepening reform and implementing correct policies. In this critical period in China's reform and development, when profound changes are taking place in our economic system, social structure, pattern of social interests and mindset, we combine enhancing efficiency with improving social equity in a bid to maximize harmonious factors and minimize inharmonious factors, thereby bringing about continued progress in improving economic efficiency and social harmony. We make sure that the aim and outcome of all the work of the Party and the state are to realize, safeguard and expand the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. We uphold the principle that development is for the people, by the people and with the people sharing in its fruits. We give priority to education, work hard to promote job creation, continue increasing the income of urban and rural residents, accelerate the establishment of a social security system covering both urban and rural residents, speed up the development of the medical and health care system, strengthen social management with concrete steps, and intensify efforts to promote a conservation culture. We are doing our best to ensure that all our people enjoy their rights to education, employment, medical care, pension, and housing. In accordance with the general requirements of democracy and the rule of law, equity and justice, honesty and fraternity, vigor and vitality, stability and order, and harmony between man and nature, we should vigorously develop social services, promote social equity and justice and try to create a lively situation in which everyone is duty-bound to work for and benefits from social harmony.
(8) We must link upholding our independence with participation in economic globalization, taking both the domestic and international situations into account and so contributing to the ideals of peace and human development.
Over the past 30 years, we have highly valued the right of independence that the Chinese people have gained through long-term struggle and never wavered in safeguarding it. At the same time, we have adhered to the basic national policy of reform and opening up. We have been consistent in our efforts to examine the development of China and the world. We have deliberated and devised strategies for China's development based on a philosophy to closely link the domestic situation with interaction situations. We have pursued an independent foreign policy of peace, a path of peaceful development and a win-win strategy of opening up. We have strived to build a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity, create a favorable international environment for China's development and make great contributions to the world's peace and development.
The future and destiny of contemporary China have been closely connected with those of the world. China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world, nor can the world enjoy development without China. In the world today, no country that attempts to develop itself with its doors closed is able to succeed. Based on our comprehensive analysis of our external environment, where the trend of world multi-polarization is strengthening and economic globalization is deepening, we have decided to take good use of the opportunities while meeting the challenges arising from the developments and changes in the world today. While upholding independence, we bravely take part in economic globalization. In China, a major developing socialist country with a large population, we must always seek development on the basis of independence and self-reliance. We should always adhere to the social system and development path that the Chinese people have chosen by themselves. We should always put the nation's sovereignty and security above anything else. We should resolutely safeguard China's interests in terms of sovereignty, security and development. We are determined to deal with Chinese affairs according to China's realities by relying on the strength of the Chinese people. We are categorically against foreign forces' intervention in China's domestic affairs. We should decide our stances and policies on all international issues according to the rights or wrongs of the issues concerned while taking into account the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and the common interests of people all over the world. We should observe and cope with situations with cool heads in the spirit of mutual respect and seeking common ground while shelving differences, without yielding to any pressure from the outside. At the same time, we conduct exchanges and cooperation with all other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. We are committed to promoting world multi-polarization and democracy in international relations. We respect the diversity of the world and are opposed to hegemonism and power politics. We continue to expand our opening-up program and integrate our "bring in" and "go global" strategies. We are eager to draw on all the fine achievements of human society and make full use of our advantages while avoiding disadvantages. We try to gain new advantages for China in international economic cooperation and competition amid economic globalization, while advancing economic globalization in the direction of balanced development, shared benefits and win-win progress. We take good care of the Earth, the only home of human beings, to advance human civilization. We should always hold high the banner of peace, development and cooperation, develop ourselves in the peaceful international environment, and safeguard world peace through our own development.
(9) We must link promoting reform and development with maintaining social stability. While keeping the momentum of our development pace, we should pay more attention to balanced development, so as to ensure unity, harmony and stability in our society.
Over the past 30 years, we have properly handled the relationship between reform, development and stability while vigorously pursuing reform and development. We take reform as a driving force, development as our aim, stability as a prerequisite and improving people's lives as a pivotal task in balancing reform, development and stability. We pursue reform and development against the backdrop of social stability, while promoting social stability through reform and development. At a time when far-reaching and profound changes are taking place in China and beyond, we should always maintain social stability.
Striking a balance between reform, development and stability is an important guiding principle that bears on China's socialist modernization drive. In order to advance our socialist modernization, we must take the initiative in adjusting and reforming the aspects and links where there are inconsistencies between relations of production and productive forces and between the superstructure and the economic base. While persisting in exploring new frontiers and making innovations courageously, we bear the big picture in mind, pay much attention to priorities, solve easy problems before difficult ones, make progress in a phased manner and gain experience through practice. We render our decision-making in a more scientific manner and reform measures better coordinated. We seek to harmonize reforms in the economic, political, cultural, social and other systems to garner broad and deep support from the public. We sum up our experience in reform in a timely fashion so that we can continue with right practices, rectify wrong practices in no time, and address new problems as soon as they arise. At the same time, we are deeply aware that development is the fundamental principle and stability is the fundamental goal. Without stability, we will get nowhere and may even fritter away our past achievements. We should correctly understand and deal with all kinds of problems in our economy and society. We should strengthen and improve our ideological and political work. We should improve the mechanism for safeguarding the rights and interests of the people in which the Party and the government play a leading role. We should handle internal problems of the people in a proper and timely manner. We should crack down on crime in accordance with the law, remain vigilant against and resolutely forestall infiltrative and sabotaging activities in various forms, safeguarding social stability and national security. Treasuring the current period of important strategic opportunities, we should safeguard national security and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. With that in mind, we should always have a comprehensive understanding of the overall significance of social stability, effectively address the manifold problems and challenges that affect social stability and ensure that people live and work in peace and contentment, society remains stable and in good order and the state enjoys lasting stability.
(10) We must link advancing the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics with making progress in the great new undertaking to build the Party, strengthening the Party's governing capability, keeping the vanguard nature, and improving the art of the Party's leadership and governance and its ability to resist corruption, degeneration and risks.
In the past three decades, we gave firmly focused on advancing the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics to make progress in building the Party, while strengthening our efforts to build the Party to advance the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We've kept up with changes in global, national and intra-Party conditions, and defined the historical orientation of the Party. We have upheld to the principle of the Party to toughen internal discipline and set a high standard for party building. We've strengthened the Party's task to build itself in a spirit of reform and innovation. We've constantly improved the Party's governing capability, maintained and developed its vanguard nature, consolidated its class basis and expanded its mass basis, enhanced its ability to resist corruption, degeneration and risks, and maintained its close ties with the people, enabling the Party to remain as the firm core of leadership for the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Upholding and improving the leadership of the Party is the fundamental guarantee for the successful advancement of our cause. Without the firm and unified leadership of the Party, it's unimaginable for us to unify the thoughts and pool the strength of 1.3 billion people, and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics with their concerted efforts. We must be profoundly aware that the Party's vanguard nature and its position of governance are not perpetual and unchangeable. That the Party had a vanguard nature and governance position in the past doesn't mean it still has them now, and having them now doesn't mean it will have them forever. To fulfill the great mission endowed by the people and history, the Party must seriously study new situations and new problems it encounters in building itself and should constantly recognize, strengthen and improve itself while leading reform and development.
We should persistently strengthen the Party's task to build itself – unifying the thoughts of all Party members while constantly emancipating their minds, promoting the training of high-caliber cadres and personnel while strengthening the Party's governing capability and vanguard nature, expanding the Party's mass basis while consolidating its class basis, and carrying forward the spirit of the time while inheriting the good traditions of the Party – and ensure that the Party always has the nature of being the vanguard of the Chinese working class, the Chinese people and the Chinese nation, adheres to the guiding position of Marxism and the fundamental purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, carries forward fine traditions and styles, and constantly enhances the Party's creativity, cohesion and combat effectiveness. We attach high importance to raising the quality of Party members and cadres, especially their ideological and political quality. It is a must that all Party members and cadres put the interests of the Party and the people first and firmly bear in mind the "two musts." (The comrades must be taught to remain modest, prudent and free from arrogance and rashness in their style of work. The comrades must be taught to preserve the style of plain living and hard struggle.) All Party members and cadres should put into practice the principle of exercising power for the people, showing concern for them and working for their interests, adhere to upholding the Party spirit, being impeccable in moral standards and playing an exemplary role in society, and withstand the tests of long-term governance, reform and opening up, and developing the socialist market economy. We should always strengthen efforts to build the Party in a spirit of reform and innovation, focus on strengthening the Party's governing capability and vanguard nature, and ensure that the Party toughen internal discipline and set a high standard for party building in order to fulfill the requirement of serving the people and being pragmatic and incorruptible. We must strengthen Party building in all respects. Ideologically, we will focus on fortifying the convictions of Party members. Organizationally, we will put emphasis on bringing up Party members and cadres of quality. In improving the Party's style of work, we will stress the maintenance of its close ties with the people. Institutionally, we will emphasize improving democratic centralism. In enhancing the Party's capacity to fight corruption and uphold integrity, we will focus on improving the institutions for punishing and preventing corruption. All this will enable the Party to remain a ruling Marxist party that is built for public interests and exercises governance for the people; a party that is realistic, pragmatic and committed to reform and innovation; a party that is hardworking and clean; and a party that is full of vigor and enjoys solidarity and harmony.
Over the past three decades, we have gained invaluable experiences in eliminating poverty, accelerating modernization, and consolidating and developing socialism in a large developing country of 1.3 billion people. These experiences shine with the brilliance of the truth of Marxism and are the success of dialectical materialism and historical materialism.
Our country has a large population and weak economic foundation, and its development is unbalanced. The arduous and onerous tasks we've undertaken in advancing reform and opening up and socialist modernization, the scale and complexity of the contradictions and problems we've met in reform and opening up, and the difficulties and risks on our way forward are all unprecedented.
To properly solve these contradictions and problems, and overcome these difficulties and risks, we should grasp the principal contradictions and the principal aspects and make them as the breakthrough points. Meanwhile, we should be good at making overall plans, coordinating and balancing, to pool forces helpful in overcoming the principal contradictions and the principal aspects of the contradictions. We should also constantly enhance our capability of controlling complicated situations and solving complicated problems, to advance social and economic development.
In the past three decades, the Party has innovatively explored and answered major theoretical and practical questions such as what Marxism is, how to treat Marxism, what socialism is, how to build socialism, what kind of party we must build and how to build it, what kind of development China should achieve and how to achieve it. The experiences of the past three decades can be summarized as adapting the basic tenets of Marxism to conditions in China, taking our own road and building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Experiences in the past 30 years are extremely precious wealth and should be doubly treasured and consciously put into practice by all Party members.
The Chinese nation has a history of over 5,000 years. In the long history of China, people of all ethnic groups have made concerted efforts to strive to become stronger, exploiting the beautiful landscape of the motherland, creating the glories of Chinese civilization and making a huge and unforgettable contribution.
After the Opium War, Western intervention and the decadent governance of feudal rulers gradually reduced China to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal state. The country was then extremely poor and backward, embroiled in endless wars, and the people were plunged into the depths of misery. To realize the great renaissance of the Chinese nation, numerous public spirited individuals rose up to create a new Chinese renaissance, seeking ways to save the nation and the people and build a new China.
In less than a century, three great revolutions took place in our country. The first one was the 1911 Revolution led by Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the feudal autocracy that had ruled China for several thousand years, opening the floodgate for China's advancement. The second one was the new-democratic revolution and socialist revolution led by the Party, which overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism in China and gave rise to the founding of new China. As a result the socialist system was established, laying solid foundation for all development and progress of contemporary China. The third one was the great new revolution -- reform and opening up -- led by the Party, which enabled the Chinese people to develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, ushering in a bright future of national renaissance.
Our ambitious goal is to build a moderately prosperous society of a higher level to the benefit of over 1 billion people by 2021, when the Party will celebrate its 100th anniversary, and to realize modernization by and large and establish a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious modern socialist country by 2049, the year marking the 100th anniversary of the People's Republic of China. As long as we don't vacillate, relax our efforts or allow ourselves to be distracted, and we resolutely push forward reform and opening up and follow the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, we will definitely realize our ambitious plans and end goal.
In the past 30 years, we did make great achievements. But comparing these achievements with our ambitious goal and the people's expectations, we have no reason to be conceited and self-satisfied. We must keenly recognize the basic reality that China is still in the primary stage of socialism and that the situation will remain so for a long time to come has not changed, nor has Chinese society's principal contradiction -- the one between the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and the low level of social production. China's current development also displays a series of new features. Overall productivity remains low, the capacity for independent innovation is weak, and longstanding structural problems and the extensive mode of growth have yet to be fundamentally addressed. There remain structural and institutional obstacles slowing down development. There are still a considerable number of impoverished and low-income people in both urban and rural areas. The foundation of agriculture remains weak and rural areas still lag behind in development. We face an arduous task in narrowing the urban-rural and interregional gaps in development and promoting balanced economic and social development. In the same time, many new issues have emerged in social development and management. Defects and deficiencies remain in the work of the Party and the government, resulting in various public complaints. On our way forward we will continue to encounter all kinds of difficulties and risks. The task of reform and development is arduous and the road ahead is long. All Party members should work conscientiously and live up to the trust and expectations of the people. People of all ethnic groups should strive with one heart and one mind, and always maintain and carry forward the enterprising spirit of unceasingly striving to become stronger.
The great course and great achievements of the 30 years since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee have profoundly made clear to us all that the decision to carry out reform and opening up has been vital to the destiny of contemporary China, that reform and opening up are the only way to develop socialism with Chinese characteristics and rejuvenate the Chinese nation, that only socialism can save China and that only reform and opening up can develop China, socialism and Marxism. Essentially reform and opening up are in accord with the aspirations of the Party membership and the people and keep up with the trend of the times. The orientation and path of reform and opening up are entirely correct, and their merits and achievements can never be negated. To stop or reverse reform and opening up would lead us down a blind alley.
Given the new international and domestic situations, and at a new historical starting point, we must resolutely follow the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics initiated at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, and unswervingly adhere to the Party's fundamental theory, direction, strategy and experience. We should make bold changes and innovations, stay away from rigidity or stagnation, fear no risks, never be confused by any interference, and continue advancing reform and opening up and socialist modernization.
We shall uphold the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and continue to adapt Marxism to Chinese conditions. To uphold the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the basic point is to adhere to the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics. After 30 years of practical exploration and theoretical innovation, we understand socialism with Chinese characteristics in a more profound way.
Taking the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics means we will, under the leadership of the CPC and in light of China's basic conditions, take economic development as the central task, adhere to the Four Cardinal Principles and persevere in reform and opening up, release and develop the productive forces, consolidate and improve the socialist system, develop the socialist market economy, socialist democracy, an advanced socialist culture and a harmonious socialist society, and make China a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious modern socialist country.
In contemporary China, to stay true to socialism means to keep to the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics; to stick to the system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics means to adhere to Marxism. Practices since the publication of the Communist Manifesto nearly 160 years ago have proved that Marxism is an open system of theories that advances in step with the times. The system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics both demonstrates the strong vitality of Marxism in contemporary China and explores wide space for our theoretical innovation.
Developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is a long-term task that we must address consistently. The same goes for developing the system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We shall develop the system in accordance with the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must emancipate our minds, seek truth from facts, keep up with the times, stick to the practical matters of reform and opening up and our national modernization drive, focus on the things we are engaged in, focus on the application of the theory of Marxism, focus on theoretical thinking of practical matters, focus on new exploration and development, study major theories and answer practical questions, thus constantly upgrading the successful experiences created by the Party leading the people into theories, persistently endowing socialism with Chinese characteristics with vivid features of practice, nationality and the times. Hence, we may continuously promote the popularization of Marxism in contemporary China, and ensure that Marxism in contemporary China shines even more brightly.
We shall adhere to the correct direction of reform and opening up, building an institution and mechanism that is efficient, open, full of vigor, and beneficial to scientific development. The fundamental reason behind the historic changes among the Chinese people, socialist China and the CPC in the past three decades is that we have unswervingly adhered to the correct direction of reform and opening up under the guidance of the Party. China's future development also depends on reform and opening up. There is no end to practice, exploration or innovation. There is never a one-size-fits-all development path or an invariable mode in the world. We shall neither regard individual judgments from books as doctrine to bind our minds and hands, nor regard effective practices as perfect modes. We shall adapt to changes in domestic and global circumstances while fully considering people's expectations, be determined and courageous, unswervingly implement the spirit of reform and innovation in all channels of governance, continue to promote reform and innovation in the economic system, political system, cultural system and social system. We should accelerate reform in key fields and pivotal links. We should take efforts to remove the theoretical and institutional obstacles hindering our development, promoting the coordination of all links and aspects of the modernization drive, promoting the coordination of production relations and productive forces, and that of the superstructure and the economic base, and constantly perfecting the development path and development mode that are suitable to our national conditions. We must adhere to the basic national policy of reform and opening up, expand the width and depth of reform and opening up, enhance the quality of opening up, perfect the safe, open and efficient economic system that coordinates domestic and overseas development and strives for mutual benefit and win-win deals, strengthen economic and technological exchanges and cooperation with other countries, and continue to promote the common development of the world along with our own peaceful development.
We must regard development as the top priority of the Party in governing and rejuvenating the country, and ensure that the people share in the fruits of that development. Given that the effects of the world financial crisis are spreading, we shall be more conscious and determined to firmly commit ourselves to the central task of economic development, concentrate on construction and development, and adhere to a road of well-balanced development, i.e. production gets promoted, people's life gets improved and ecosystem gets protected.
The essence of the Scientific Outlook on Development is development. It puts people first, and takes comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development as its core requirements. The fundamental approach to implement it is to give consideration to both urban and rural development, both coastal and inland development, both economic and social development, both human and environment protection, both domestic development and foreign relations.
We must grasp the law of development, make innovations in our thinking, transform the mode of development, crack hard issues and advance socialism with Chinese characteristics in an all-round manner. We must better implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education, the strategy of strengthening the nation with trained personnel and the strategy of sustainable development, accelerate the strategic adjustment of our economic structure, enhance the capacity for independent innovation, build an innovative nation, accelerate the building of a resource-conserving and environmentally-friendly society, continuously boost our economic strength, scientific and technological strength and comprehensive national strength, build up international competence and anti-risk capability, and lay a solid foundation for developing socialism with Chinese characteristics.
We shall take all practical measures to further expand domestic demand and promote economic growth, carefully and appropriately respond to the international financial crisis and all risks stemming from the international economic environment, and try to maintain the steady and relatively fast development of our economy. The fundamental goal of our Party, in its efforts to lead the people to build a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, and carry out reform and opening up and the socialist modernization drive, is to continuously enhance living standards and enrich people's cultural activities, and boost the all-round development of the people through developing the productive forces. We shall always be concerned with the welfare of the people, earnestly listen to their appeals and truly reflect their will, do more good and practical deeds for them, try all means to help those facing difficulty, reconstruct the earthquake-hit regions, guarantee the economic, political, cultural and social rights of the people, and constantly promote social harmony.
We must guard against arrogance and rashness, preserve the style of plain living and hard struggle and continuously create new stages of reform and opening up and socialist undertakings. Our undertakings are future oriented. It will take more than a decade of continued efforts to reach the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and decades more to realize modernization by and large, and it will require unremitting efforts by several, a dozen or even dozens of generations to consolidate and develop the socialist system.
The style of plain living and hard struggle is our heirloom. Our Party was founded and undertakings developed on the basis of plain living and hard struggle. Our happy lives and bright future will also depend on plain living and hard struggle. The Party and the people of all ethnic groups shall fight a long battle staunchly and unswervingly. We shall stay prepared for adversity in times of peace, be mindful of potential dangers, remain clearheaded, grasp and take advantage of the strategic opportunities in this important period and continuously make new achievements.
We shall be more earnest and conscious in our study of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and especially Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thinking of the "Three Represents," the Scientific Outlook on Development and other major strategic thoughts. We shall study all new knowledge that is needed to accomplish our tasks, adhere to seeking truth and being pragmatic, strengthen strategic thinking, develop a global foresight, enhance our understanding of the rule of socialism with Chinese characteristics, work in a principled, systematic, predictable and innovative way, and boost our capability to promote scientific development and social harmony.
We shall build an incorruptible Party and government and further combat corruption, in line with the principle of addressing both the symptoms and root causes, treating corruption in a comprehensive manner, giving equal emphasis to both punishment and precaution and especially stressing precaution, continue to have a clear-cut stand against corruption, faithfully improve our working style, and maintain the vigor and righteousness of the communists. We shall safeguard the unity of the Party with a spirit of initiative, maintain the bond between the Party and the people, consolidate the unity of all ethnic people, strengthen the unity of the Chinese people at home and overseas, promote the unity of the Chinese people and people around the globe, further accomplish our tasks, and draw a newer and more beautiful picture on the historical painting of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Our current achievements have been recorded in the history books. Now new and more arduous responsibilities are ahead of us. Our task is great and sacred. Our future is bright. Our duties are great and glorious. Let us unite more closely, move forward unswervingly along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics inaugurated at the Third Plenary Session of the 17th CPC Central Committee, continue to emancipate our minds, adhere to reform and opening up, promote scientific development, boost social harmony, remain united in our fight for a new victory of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, a new stage of socialist undertaking with Chinese characteristics and the great renaissance of the Chinese nation, and make new and greater contributions to mankind!