The China Academy of Translation, a research institute affiliated with the China International Publishing Group, the country's leading international publisher, has analyzed prevailing terms concerning the China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative and translated them into a number of foreign languages. In each issue, Beijing Review presents some of these keywords to help readers know more about the initiative.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an inter-governmental organization, the creation of which was announced in Shanghai on June 15, 2001 by China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Currently, the SCO comprises eight member states, with India and Pakistan being granted full membership in June.
Between themselves, the SCO members have developed the "Shanghai Spirit," which is based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, consultation, respect for cultural diversity, and pursuit of common prosperity. Externally they follow the principle of openness and non-alignment, and their strategies and policies are not directed against any third party or any other region.
The top decision-making body of the SCO is the Council of Heads of State, which meets once a year to decide on major issues. The SCO's Council of Heads of Government also meets once a year to discuss priorities and issues of multilateral cooperation. Its two permanent bodies are the SCO Secretariat in Beijing (China) and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in Tashkent (Uzbekistan).
China-ASEAN (10+1) cooperation mechanism
Established in 1997, the China-ASEAN (10+1) cooperation mechanism has played an important role in promoting closer political and economic ties between China and ASEAN members and has become one of the major forums for regional cooperation.
China-ASEAN dialogue was launched in 1991. The first China-ASEAN (10+1) summit convened in 1997 and announced the formation of the China-ASEAN partnership of good-neighborliness and mutual trust. The China-ASEAN Free Trade Area was created in January 2010 representing a milestone in China-ASEAN bilateral relations and initiating the process of China-ASEAN economic integration. China was the first non-ASEAN country to join the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia and establish a strategic partnership with ASEAN as well as the first major country to build a free trade area with ASEAN.
Necessary platforms for dialogue have been put in place to ensure successful and effective bilateral cooperation, including the ASEAN-China Summit, ministerial meetings and working group meetings. The ASEAN-China Center is a permanent body for promoting bilateral cooperation.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum is the highest level mechanism for economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. With 21 member economies and three observers—ASEAN Secretariat, Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, and Pacific Islands Forum—it covers an extensive part of the world and wields significant influence.
The forum was formally established in November 1989 at a ministerial meeting in the Australian capital of Canberra attended by Australia, the U.S., Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Canada and the six ASEAN countries at the time.
APEC focuses on global and regional economic issues such as trade and investment liberalization, regional economic integration, connectivity, economic structural reform and innovative development, global multilateral trade systems, economic and technological cooperation, and development capacity.
APEC operates at five institutional levels: meetings of economic leaders, ministerial meetings, meetings of senior officials, committees and working groups, and the Secretariat. China hosted the 2001 and 2014 APEC economic leaders' meetings in Shanghai and Beijing respectively and has played an active role in promoting free and open regional trade and investment and stimulating regional and global economic growth.
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