Past weeks witnessed an impressive display of international solidarity with the Chinese people and support for their cause. In all parts of the world, friends of the Chinese people celebrated New China's 10th anniversary as one of their own red-letter days, spotlighting the world significance of the Chinese revolution and of China's achievements during the past decade.
In all the socialist countries, celebrations for the anniversary continued for many days with a variety of activities. Many started in mid-September and are still on now.
In the Soviet Union, celebration activities were nationwide. There were scores of activities in Moscow alone, the biggest being the jubilee gathering in the Hall of Columns. Soviet Party and government leaders were among the 1,500 guests at the gala anniversary reception given by Ambassador Liu Hsiao in the magnificent, newly completed buildings of the Chinese Embassy. On October 1, there was a special performance of music in the Kremlin Theatre, during which the new choral work entitled For Ever Together by Muradeli (composer for the famous song Moscow-Peking) was sung for the first time. Workers in many Soviet factories greeted China's National Day by fulfilling Chinese orders ahead of schedule.
Pyongyang, Korea, was in festive mood on October 1, with huge colourful streamers hung over the main thoroughfares of the city, heralding the first day of a month of activities in honour of Korean-Chinese friendship. In Viet-nam, celebration meetings were held in the major cities. The Chinese historical play Chu Yuan has been translated into Vietnamese and its premiere took place in Hanoi on October 2. Also in honour of the anniversary, a cross-country bicycle race was held down the length of north Viet-nam.
In Bucharest, Rumania, celebrations took the form of a mass gathering, an exhibition of Chinese achievements, a Chinese books exhibition, and friendship activities in many of its factories. Similar activities were arranged in the other fraternal countries in Europe.
Celebrations were also held on a large scale in the Asian and African countries. Government leaders attending receptions given by the Chinese Embassies and legations warmly greeted China's anniversary. Premier Kassim of Iraq declared that China was marching forward and that the Iraqi people regarded China's National Day as one of their own festivals. Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia said that as a friend of China, Cambodia was very happy to see the great successes achieved by the Chinese people. Prime Minister Koirala of Nepal, opening an exhibition of Chinese photographs, arts and crafts to mark China's tenth anniversary in Kathmandu, declared that differences in political and social systems could not constitute obstacles in the development of friendly relations between Nepal and China.
In India, large numbers of representatives of various organizations went to the Chinese Embassy in New Delhi to extend their congratulations and express their friendship for the Chinese people. In many cities in Madras State, special gatherings of solidarity with China were held.
In Indonesia, the celebrations included an exhibition of Chinese plastic arts and contemporary paintings in traditional style and a mass gathering sponsored by the Indonesia-China Friendship Association.
In Tokyo, Japan, a mammoth meeting attended by 6,000 representatives from different people's organizations celebrated China's tenth anniversary and demanded restoration of relations with China. This, along with gatherings in more than one hundred other cities and towns throughout Japan, marked the beginning of a month of celebration activities.
In faraway Latin America, celebrations were held in almost all the capitals on that continent. Mass meetings, reports by delegates who have recently returned from visits in China, discussion forums, showings of Chinese films, all brought the new China still closer to the Latin American peoples.
In many cities in Australia, northern and western Europe and North America, New China's friends celebrated her 10th anniversary. In London famous Negro singer Paul Robeson - great friend of the Chinese people - sang for the occasion at the gathering organized by the Britain-China Friendship Association.
China's thousands of guests from 87 countries, having taken part in the gala 10th jubilee celebrations in Peking (see Peking Review, Nos. 39 and 40) are now either leaving for home or touring other parts of the country, meeting people and seeing China's work of socialist construction at first hand.
The Chinese people felt deeply honoured to entertain so large a number of distinguished visitors and particularly the delegations from fraternal socialist countries headed by prominent leaders. It was further evidence of the great solidarity of the peoples.
Several important meetings were arranged in Peking during and after the jubilee celebrations.
Chairman Mao Tse-tung had important talks with N. S. Khrushchov before the latter's departure for home on October 4. Taking part in the talks on the Soviet side were: M. A. Suslov, A. A. Gromyko and A. F. Antonov. Taking part on the Chinese side were: Liu Shao-chi, Chou En-lai, Chu Teh, Lin Piao, Peng Chen, Chen Yi and Wang Chia-hsiang.
There were also separate meetings with the Party and government delegations from the other fraternal countries. As we go to press, President Ho Chi Minh, Premier Kim Il Sung, Premier Tsedenbal, and the delegations they led, the G.D.R. delegation headed by Hermann Matern, First Vice-President of the People's Chamber, the Rumanian delegation headed by Emil Bodnaras, Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers, and the Hungarian delegation have already returned home. The Polish delegation led by President Aleksander Zawadzki left Canton on October 6 for a visit to Viet-nam, while the Czechoslovak delegation led by President An-tonin Novotny left Peking for Korea on October 7 after a tour of Wuhan and Shanghai. The Albanian delegation led by Mehmet Shehu, Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the Bulgarian delegation led by Dimiter Ganev, President of the Presidium of the National Assembly, and Dobi Istvan, President of the Presidium of the Hungarian People's Republic, are still on a tour of China.
Chairman Mao Tse-tung held many receptions for the foreign guests who were in Peking for the 10th jubilee. Outstanding among these were the ones for various delegations from Latin American countries on October 7 and delegations from Asia and Africa on October 7 and 8. Earlier, on the 5th and 6th respectively, Chairman Mao and other leaders met with fraternal Party delegations from the Latin American countries and the Indian fraternal Party delegation led by General Secretary Ajoy Ghosh.
Sino-Soviet Friendship Association: Ton Years Old
The Sino-Soviet Friendship Association was founded just three days after the birth of the People's Republic on October 1, 1949. Since then, along with the growth of Sino-Soviet friendship and cooperation, the association has developed into a national mass organization, playing an important role in promoting and publicizing this great internationalist friendship and encouraging serious study of advanced Soviet experience among the Chinese people.
Now, in the midst of New China's 10th anniversary celebrations the association is also celebrating its own 10th anniversary. On October 4, a great rally was held in Peking. It was attended by Premier Chou En-lai. other government and Party leaders and the visiting-delegation of the Soviet-Chinese Friendship Association headed by the noted poet N. S. Tikhonov. Madame Soong Ching Ling, President of the association, expressed the heartfelt thanks of the Chinese people for the selfless help given to China by the Soviet Government and people. She said that international support and assistance, particularly that from the Soviet Union, has been an essential condition for China's great successes. "The Chinese people warmly welcome the cordial talks conducted between Comrades Mao Tse-tung and N. S. Khrushchov in Peking. . . . The friendship and unity between China and the Soviet Union and among all socialist countries are rock-firm and indestructible. The schemes the imperialists and reactionaries are hatching to sow dissension and discoid among the socialist countries will have no other result than to expose their ugly features to the world's peoples," Soong Ching Ling declared.
The assembly, on receiving news of the successful launching of the Soviet Union's third cosmic rocket, burst into tumultuous applause.
The mass character of the association is reflected in the gigantic scale of its work. Here are some relevant figures published in the Chinese press on its anniversary. In ten years, the association published some 46,560,000 pamphlets, periodicals and books introducing various aspects of Soviet life and Sino-Soviet friendship. It has organized lectures and reports for audiences totalling more than 164 million people - many by speakers who had been to the Soviet Union as members of delegations organized by the association - and over 145,000 exhibitions of all kinds in all parts of the country.
Message to Premier Kassim
On learning of the attempt on the life of Premier Kassim of Iraq, Premier Chou En-lai on October 8 sent a message expressing sympathy and wishing him early recovery. The message said: "The Chinese people resolutely condemn imperialist intrigues of subversion and assassination, and are convinced that the united strength of the Iraqi people will definitely be able to crush all imperialist conspiracies."
U.S. Military Intrusions
U.S. military intrusions into China's territorial air and waters continued unabated during September.
On September 15, at 12:40 hours, a U.S. naval patrol plane flew over Yunghsing Island in the Hsisha Islands, Kwang-tung Province. On September 17, a U.S. warship intruded into the Paichuan area off the Fukien coast between 13:00 and 15:45 hours. On September 19, another U.S. warship intruded into the Paichuan and Tungyin areas off the Fukien coast between 10:39 and 15:42 hours. Between 11:20 and 16:00 hours on September 22, 8:04 and 11:08 hours on September 23 and 10:00 and 12:40 hours on September 24, a U.S. warship on three successive occasions entered Chinese territorial waters in the Pingtan area off the Fukien coast. On September 26, a U.S. aircraft flew over the Choushan area off the Chekiang coast between 12:02 and 12:07 hours and another U.S. aircraft flew over the Yu-shan area off the Chekiang coast between 16:39 and 16:43 hours.
The Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman has issued the 66th, 67th, 68th, 69th, 70th, 71st and 72nd serious warnings against these military provocations.
Hsinhua Refutes Fabrications in U.A.R. Press
The, following statement was issued by the Hsinhua News Agency on October 8. - Ed.
In the past few days, the newspapers in the United Arab Republic have published many fabrications directed against China. In particular the Al Ahram of Cairo alleged on October 3 that the Chinese Government had intercepted a message sent by the U.A.R. Foreign Ministry to the U.A.R. Charge d'Affaires in China and that the Chinese authorities had placed the U.A.R. Embassy under "close watch." The same paper on October 4 alleged without any grounds that the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs had asked the Chinese Ambassador to the U.A.R. to fly back to Peking "to report to the government on the situation." Although government leaders or officials of Iraq, Yemen, the Sudan and Morocco attended the National Day celebration receptions given by the Chinese envoys in their countries, the paper alleged that all the Arab capitals had "boycotted" the celebrations held by the Chinese Embassies in these countries. The Al Gomhouria of Cairo also falsely alleged that China "concentrated its forces on (India's) frontiers to intimidate India" and "started fighting" on Burma's borders, etc.
The Hsinhua News Agency is hereby authorized to declare that the above-mentioned reports in the Al Ahram and other newspapers are utterly without foundation. They are out-and-out fabrications. The U.A.R. Embassy in China has always enjoyed the usual treatment accorded to diplomatic missions and has never been subjected to any interference or obstruction. The Chinese Ambassador to the U.A.R. has not been instructed to return to China to report on the situation. China has never intimidated India or started fighting against Burma. The Chinese people are friendly to the people of the U.A.R. and the people of other Asian and African countries. These fabrications carried in the newspapers in the U.A.R. to sow dissension will certainly fail. U.A.R. newspapers are advised to treasure the friendship between China and the U.A.R. and immediately stop spreading rumours.
(Beijing Review NO. 41, 1959)